- Reality section in Aristotle's logic - Why Aristotelian logic does not work
- Analogy: attempting to make patterns between ‘two’ separated real objects or ‘situations’.
Situations are also objects, happenings in the real world.
Happenings are moving ‘or’ interacting objects.
All reasoning using analogy, while often useful (pragmatic), is essentially sloppy – that is, empirically unsound and should, therefore, always be used with caution and close, conscious attention.
To suggest anything can be empirically sound runs into problems, including the error called ‘complete’. To suggest that a ‘theory’ (description) is ‘empirically sound’is unacceptable. What can be said is that the description has, thus far, been sufficiently useful for human communication and purposes.
Empiric refers to the real world. A description of the real world (in words) remains a description. The world is what it is, it is not the description.
A description, however, is of itself ‘part’ of the real world.
- As with all words in this section, a meme is a small programme running in your head. For more discussion, start here.
These programmes are not static. As with a computer programme, they can be modified with experience. It is the real world impingeing on the senses which, sensibly, drives modofications in the memes. Unfortunately, society is still at a primitive state where ‘it’ attempts to force predigested memes into the heads of the young in the form of ‘dogmas’.
Only by allowing reality to drive the refinement of the memes can one approach sanity.
Always remain aware that the memes are mere approximations to reality, not substitutes for reality.
For more on memes, visit section on memes in useful links
- In mathematics you will see comments like “let x ‘equal’ ” . This means you can put any ‘thing’ at all into this category (set). You will see from Gödel’s confusions: Metalogic A, in much detail, that this is no safe or innocent practice.
Many call mathematics ‘abstract’ for reasons apparently similar to this.
- See also the error of to be.
Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) 1832–98
English writer and logician
“When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in a rather scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.”
“The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.”
“The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which is to be master—that’s all.”
Through the Looking-Glass (1872), chapter 6.
- Other strongly held ‘beliefs’ are also often mis-referred to as ‘dogma’, even though those beliefs may better accord with reality but not with the beliefs of another.
- “Trust actions not words”— Niccolò Machiavelli, 1469 – 1527.
a more exact quote would be desirable.