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This news item, raising more questions than it answers - on brown clouds over asia, has been incorporated into tracking and measuring global warming is not as easy as cribbage.

the web address for the article above is
http://www.abelard.org/news/ecology0707.php#brown_cloud_asia_030807





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benedict pope on enviroment and evolution

“The Pope, leader of some 1.1 billion Roman Catholics worldwide, said: "We must respect the interior laws of creation, of this Earth, to learn these laws and obey them if we want to survive."

“ "This obedience to the voice of the Earth is more important for our future happiness ... than the desires of the moment. Our Earth is talking to us and we must listen to it and decipher its message if we want to survive," he said.

“Last April the Vatican sponsored a scientific conference on climate change to underscore the role that religious leaders around the world could play in reminding people that wilfully damaging the environment is sinful.

“In his talk with the priests, the Pope spoke of the current debate raging in some countries, particularly the United States and his native Germany, between creationism and evolution.

“ "They are presented as alternatives that exclude each other," the Pope said. "This clash is an absurdity because on one hand there is much scientific proof in favour of evolution, which appears as a reality that we must see and which enriches our understanding of life and being as such."

“But he said evolution did not answer all the questions. "Above all it does not answer the great philosophical question 'where does everything come from?'" ”

the web address for the article above is
http://www.abelard.org/news/ecology0707.php#pope_environment_270707

urban myth: hummers versus prius - energy accounts, manufacture and running carbon costs
discussion/comment forum further down linked page for interested parties.

“Using the GREET assumptions I will compare several vehicles, a Hummer H2, a Toyota Prius, and the Toyota Highlander (standard and hybrid). I will use the vehicle's published curb weight to determine the energy used in manufacturing, based on the mmBTU/lb factors above and I will use the average MPG (city and highway) to estimate fuel usage over a 160,000 mile lifespan. The energy required to manufacture the vehicles is:

  • Hummer H2: 200.717 mmBTU
  • Toyota Prius: 113.322 mmBTU
  • Toyota Highlander: 107.133 mmBTU
  • Toyota Highlander Hybrid: 155.18 mmBTU

“Gasoline contains 113,500 BTU (0.1134 mmBTU) per gallon. By dividing the expected lifespan of a vehicle (160,000) by its average MPG we can determine the gallons of gasoline used over that lifetime. We can also multiply this by the energy content of the fuel to get the total energy used. The gallons used during a 160,000 mile lifespan and the energy contained therein is:

  • Hummer H2: 13,913 gallons ($44,800 at today's prices!), 1579.13 mmBTU
  • Toyota Prius: 2,883 gallons, 327.207 mmBTU
  • Toyota Highlander: 6,400, 726.4 mmBTU
  • Toyota Highlander Hybrid: 5,424, 615.593 mmBTU”

the web address for the article above is
http://www.abelard.org/news/ecology0707.php#hummer_prius_180707

china would “proactively participate” in global talks on climate change - meanwhile, the opression of free expression continues

“[Premier] Wen also said China would "proactively participate" in global talks on climate change, a statement published on the government Web site (www.gov.cn) said. He did not elaborate.”

“Detailing policy instructions for the second half of 2007, Wen said local governments must curb excessive growth in energy-intensive and polluting industries by measures such as keeping credit supply in check.

“Inefficient facilities in thermal power, steel, alumina, iron alloy and cement sectors were ordered to be shut.

“Wen said the government would focus on energy-saving projects and environment protection in polluted areas, and the government would also encourage energy saving by companies through price, tax, legal and administrative measures.

“In addition, Wen hoped that "every company, every community, every organisation, every household and every citizen" would take part in programmes designed to reduce consumption of oil, gas and coal and to rein in emissions causing global warming.

“Beijing has said that it aims to reduce emissions of major industrial pollutants by 10 percent and cut the amount of energy used to generate each dollar of national income by 20 percent between 2006 and 2010.” [Quoted from planetark.org]

China is a highly inefficient user of energy.

marker at abelard.org

“[...] Officials say that such organizations can provide crucial assistance in detecting and combating corruption, labor abuses and violations of environmental laws.”

“ "I have spent the last decade telling foreigners that China is not as repressive and totalitarian as the Western media often portray it to be," Mr. Young said. "At the end of the day, I hoped that if we had an open, intelligent conversation, we would be accepted.

“ "But I think we miscalculated, or they miscalculated." ” [Quoted from nytimes.com]

How much can the claims and assertions be trusted?

the web address for the article above is
http://www.abelard.org/news/ecology0707.php#china_agw_130707

consumption is a relative term

In response to a belligerent correspondent.

I regard anthropgenic global warming [AGW] as sufficiently understood, that it takes a flat-earth moonbat to deny it.

We know fags cause cancer and dozens of other unpleasant, unnecessary things. We do not know how much, but each time the data bank increases, the numbers get worse.

I expect the same with AGW - the word is expect.

Meanwhile, we understand the AGW mechanism. We do not understand enough of the fag mechanism yet.

The belligerent one also shows strong moonbat tendencies:

“[...] the corporates desire for increased consumption when the problem is already over-consumption and pollution.”

Your socialist address is noted by the teeming, cheering multitudes.

Next lesson - go and do some work to understand ‘consumption’.

  • Is breathing ‘consumption’?
  • Is putting up a windmill ‘consumption’?
  • Is recycling ‘consumption’ of electricity?
  • Is eating for two ‘consumption’ for baybee?
  • Is defecating ‘consumption’?
  • Is defecating ‘consumption’?
  • Is inspiring carbon by a marigold ‘consumption’?
  • Is expiring oxygen by a marigold ‘consumption’?
  • Is sitting in the sun ‘consuming’ the sun?
  • What is a weed?
  • What is pollution?

Now some questions appropriate for the puritan control freak that no doubt the belligerent one is.

  • Is a factory the produces dinners a net consumer?
  • What about those that eat the dinners?
  • Is the field where with the dinners came of age a consumer?
  • What of the dormouse that ate the seeds?
  • how does profit relate to consumption?
  • Is a factory that increases production while reducing use of fuel very sinful?

the web address for the article above is
http://www.abelard.org/news/ecology0707.php#relative_consumption_130707

it’s the sun what done it - oh no it isn’t!

“It has been one of the central claims of those who challenge the idea that human activities are to blame for global warming. The planet's climate has long fluctuated, say the climate sceptics, and current warming is just part of that natural cycle - the result of variation in the sun's output and not carbon dioxide emissions.”

“The solar hypothesis was championed publicly in March by the controversial Channel 4 documentary The Great Global Warming Swindle.

“The programme has been heavily criticised for distorting scientific data to fit the sceptic argument and Carl Wunsch, a professor of physical oceanography at MIT who featured in the programme, later said that he was "totally misled" by the film makers and that his comments were "completely misrepresented".”

marker at abelard.org

Graphs showing solar activity and world temperature change. Image credit: Rutherford Laboratory
[Image credit: Lockwood and Fröhlich, Rutherford Laboratory]

legend for graphs:
a) sunspots - claimed by some to raise temperatures (f),
b) solar cycle,
c) magnetic field - claimed to counteract cosmic rays (d),
d) cosmic rays - claimed by some to reduce temperature (f)
                          by encouraging cloud formation,
e) solar irradiance - claimed to raise temperatures (f),
f) global temperatures

[Quoted from theregister.co.uk]
“Now, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory's Professor Mike Lockwood, and the University of Southampton's Claus Fröhlich have analysed the activity of the sun since 1985, to see if any of this "solar climate forcing" is detectable in recent data. They found that although we have witnessed a long period of intense activity, in the last 22 years solar activity has been on the decline, and cannot be used to explain the rapid rise of global temperatures.”

“ "That program [The Great Global Warming Swindle] was so bad it was almost fraudulent," Lockwood says. "[The subjects raised] made for a decent scientific debate 15 years ago, but the questions have since been settled.”

Lockwood and Fröhlich mapped five variables which, when checked against Earth temperatures, show no plausible collerations (see graphs above).

The original report by Mike Lockwood et al. can be bought from the Royal Society Publishing web site, cost £25 / $37.

marker at abelard.orgmarker at abelard.orgmarker at abelard.org

[Quoted from economist.com]
“ "CLOUDY." As a metaphor, that is not a bad description of the science of climate forecasting. The general trends are clear, but the details are obscure. As it happens, however, the description is not merely metaphorical—for of all the elements that make up the climate, and have to be accounted for in models of it, it is clouds that are the most obscure.

“Improving this understanding is the purpose of two new missions by NASA, America's National Aeronautics and Space Administration. One of these missions, a satellite called Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, or AIM, was launched in April to study so-called noctilucent clouds (depicted above), the highest layer of clouds in the atmosphere. These have been getting brighter and more common in recent years, and also seem to be moving to lower altitudes. The other mission, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) project, will begin on July 16th. It will use radar, balloons and aircraft to look at the role of another sort of high-altitude cloud: cirrus clouds, which get spun off the tops of storms. Meanwhile, a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Sylvia Knight of Oxford University and her colleagues has emphasised just how sensitive climate modelling is to assumptions about clouds.

“The link Dr Knight is examining, between clouds and what researchers call climate sensitivity (the degree to which a particular input is likely to change the climate), has been apparent for nearly 20 years. But because clouds take different forms at different scales—from microscopic water droplets to weather fronts that span hundreds of kilometres—they are devilishly hard to describe in models that work by manipulating "virtual" chunks of the atmosphere that are 100km (62 miles) across and 100km high.”

“The reason why clouds matter so much to the climate, and their role is so tricky to determine, is because they play two contradictory roles. At low altitudes they help to cool the Earth by reflecting sunlight away from it. At the high altitudes studied by AIM and TC4, however, they trap radiant heat from below, warming things up.

“At the moment, many researchers believe it is low-level clouds that matter most.”

related material
Anthropogenic global warming, and ocean acidity

the web address for the article above is
http://www.abelard.org/news/ecology0707.php#solar_activity_110707

saving the planet - americans have run out of water and can’t afford taps!

Icerocks from FranceAvailable in the United States for over $26 a US gallon [that is about $30/£15 an Imperial gallon]. And then there is the packaging and transport - now let’s freeze it!

“A great step forward in the integration of fine water products at a price that everyone can afford.

“Name: ICEROCKS
Country of Origin: FRANCE
TDS [total dissolved solids]: 300
pH: 7.8
Altitude: 490 feet
Discovery of Source: New
price $5:26

“Better water, better ice, for those who want to have their ice and drink it too - with the same great level of quality. ICEROCKS® are secured sealed ice cubes made from spring water drawn from the Vendée Region of France in the Massif Central. Wow!

“These glorious cubes, ready to be frozen, are hermetically packaged in disposable, recyclable containers, providing complete guarantee of hygiene and safety. The ICEROCKS® light mineral water features 37 milligrams per liter of Calcium, 157 mg/liter of Bicarbonate, 42 mg/liter Silica, and Sulphates at 53 mg/liter. Nitrates are ZERO.”

Drink petrol! it's a whole lot cheaper.

related material
class="yel1">Pressure on water resources

the web address for the article above is
http://www.abelard.org/news/ecology0707.php#mineral_water_100707

on the deadly toll of fossil fuel filth - 700,000 deaths a year in china alone

“However, the report goes on to estimate the health costs from premature deaths associated with outdoor air pollution at 394 billion yuan (US$51.8 billion). With each life valued at 1 million yuan, that works out at a death toll of 394,000.”

“ An economist in Beijing said the study's estimate of premature deaths from airborne pollution, although shocking, was broadly in line with earlier published World Bank research and with recent findings by Chinese academics.

“The World Bank is also concerned by indoor air pollution, principally breathing in fumes from coal-burning stoves and cooking oil. Its experts estimate that as many as 300,000 Chinese a year die prematurely in this way. ”

As studies progress, it is usual for such estimates to rise and rise.

see also
bush and putin offer the world nuclear power

related material
fossil fuel disasters

the web address for the article above is
http://www.abelard.org/news/ecology0707.php#china_air_pollution_050707

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